English vocabulary exercises. * Grammatical differences between formal and informal English are pointed out. Find your level by doing our 35 questions of Level Test Upper Intermediate B2. Vocabulary tests 2. Oswald English Restatements Tests category includes free online quizzes on English restatements tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Ribeye Marrow Lobster This type of exercise is vital for students living in an English-speaking country and facilitates a stress-free everyday life. ESL Vocabulary Builder 9. Other activities on this topic : B2 Crime News Reports Kranky * The grammar of North American English is emphasized. Vocabulary For ESL 6. English Grammar Test Part Three: Upper Intermediate. 32 The vocabulary test questions are divided into four English levels. Vocabulary Test 7. 22 Jan 2020. Gurmukhi Wish Clauses Tests category includes free online quizzes on wish clauses tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. ESL Vocabulary Quiz 4. Boogaloo tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Vocabulary Worksheet 14. English Reading Passages category includes free online quizzes on English reading passages tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Grammar tests , quizzes and exams for intermediate and advanced level. 18. Jolly Lodger Adjectives and Adverbs Tests category includes free online quizzes on adjectives and adverbs tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. At upper intermediate level, the vocabulary resources becomes even more specialised. Conjunctions Tests category includes free online quizzes on conjunctions tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Satisfy Coming Soon 10 Doing exercises like these, that practice words and expressions that you have already encountered is a useful way of helping yourself to fix the vocabulary you are working on in your long-term memory. STUDY. Feel free to use this test in class and/or share with your friends and colleagues. English Modal Verbs Tests category includes free online quizzes on modality: present, continuous, perfect modals tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Tests for reading, listening and grammar also available. Weights and Measures Answer Sheet Help students to live in a world far from their usual metric comforts. This will probably be suitable for students in their third or fourth year of English studies. 24 Look at the top of your web browser. Ask Teacher . In this section, you will find placement tests to help you find which level of Straightforward your students should be using. Vocabulary Practice 12. Grammar; Vocabulary; Everyday English; Audio and Video Downloads; Test Builder Creepster Try to solve the pre-intermediate test below one by one to be sure you have fully understood all the grammar topics in this level. 11 Cherry Cream Soda If you want to check whether you have thoroughly learnt elementary grammar topics of English or not, you can take the online tests in this category one by one. Learn. See if your level is Upper-Intermediate or Cambridge First Certificate, C1 Free Vocabulary Worksheet 13. Vocabulary Quiz (Upper-Int) 3. The multiple-choice and gap-fill exercises in this section cover areas such as tenses, collocations, idioms and phrasal verbs.. To get news about new exercises as we add them, sign up for our Updates Newsletter. Covered By Your Grace Find out your level. LearnEnglish Subscription: self-access courses for professionals. Exercise. Spell. Upper-Intermediate Listening Test on Things I miss from home. Prepositions Tests category includes free online quizzes on prepostions tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. 17. English Inversions (Inverted Structures) category includes free online quizzes on inversions (inverted structures) tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Test. Luckiest Guy Noun Clauses Tests category includes free online quizzes on noun clauses, auxiliaries tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Sacramento When Gregory arrived at the disco, Hania ..... .    Size: In this section you will find activities to help you learn the meaning, pronunciation and spelling of new words. Articles Tests category includes free online quizzes on articles: a, an, the tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Upper Intermediate Vocabulary - TOEFL Test Practice. Try to take all tests in this category so as to be sure that there aren’t any topics that you haven’t learnt yet. Gravity. Most Common Adjectives In English MCQ Test 3 With Answers – A Bit Harder, General ESL Vocabulary MCQ Test With Answers – Upper Intermediate Level Exercise 06, General ESL Vocabulary MCQ Test With Answers – Upper Intermediate Level Exercise 05, LOWER TO UPPER INTERMEDIATE Verbs MCQ Test With Answers – 03, LOWER TO UPPER INTERMEDIATE Verbs MCQ Test With Answers – 02, LOWER TO UPPER INTERMEDIATE Verbs MCQ Test With Answers – 01, Upper Intermediate Vocabulary Test 2 – ESL Vocabulary Exercises, Upper Intermediate Vocabulary Test 1 – ESL Vocabulary Exercises, Vocabulary Test About SMOKING Choose The Right Answer MCQ Exercise 98, Vocabulary Test About PATIENTS Choose The Right Answer MCQ Exercise 97, Vocabulary Test About PATIENTS Choose The Right Answer MCQ Exercise 96, Vocabulary Test About PATIENTS Choose The Right Answer MCQ Exercise 95, Vocabulary Test About MENTAL HEALTH Choose The Right Answer MCQ Exercise 94. The results indicate that you are probably around B2 or IH Level 6 or Upper Intermediate. ESL Vocabulary Builder 9. Rock Salt Three sections: Choose the correct option, Correct the word order, Confusing words. Research has shown that you need to meet a word at least seven times before you know it properly. Live worksheets > English > All About TOEFL More TOEFL Exercises. Video: 600 questions and answers. Black Ops One Gochi Hand There are references in the contents pages and in each test to show you which unit or units each test … very relaxed, not … 60 Sentence Completion Tests category includes free online quizzes on sentence completion tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Schoolbell If you see a message asking for permission to access the microphone, please allow. Upper Intermediate Level – Upper Intermediate English Grammar Tests Multiple Choice Questions with Answers – Online Exercises, Quizzes ESL Vocabulary Practice 11. 16 Each test has 50 questions, with one point available for each correct answer. Russo One Patrick Hand Pre-Intermediate English Grammar Tests includes online exercises English learnes who have passed previous level. PLAY. Ubuntu Pinyon Script Bubblegum Sans Quantifiers Tests category includes free online quizzes on quantifiers: some, any, many, much, a few, a little, etc. Bangers ESL VOCABULARY BUILDING EXERCISES Welcome to our online vocabulary tests section. Free grammar exercises - upper intermediate level. Tests for esl. Created by. ESL Vocabulary Test 5. Reenie Beanie Indie Flower Relative Clauses (Adjective Clauses) Tests category includes free online quizzes on relative clauses (adjective clauses) tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Love Ya Like A Sister Are you an intermediate (CEFR level B1) or upper intermediate (CEFR level B2) learner of English? Try to solve the pre-intermediate test below one by one to be sure you have fully understood all the grammar topics in this level. We also provide test practice activity for students who are preparing for the B2 First which is part the Cambridge … elementary, pre-intermediate, intermediate, upper intermediate, and advanced level. 30 minutes for Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation; 30 minutes for Reading and Writing; 30 minutes for Listening and Speaking; These comprehensive tests cover Grammar, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking for each File of New English File Upper-intermediate. Intermediate English Grammar Tests category consists of tests with multiple choice questions. Do the exercises to improve your vocabulary for air travel. Fredericka the Great Cloze Tests category includes free online quizzes on cloze tests passages tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. 13 Arial BenAllen1978. Watch this course live for free on YouTube every Monday and Wednesday at 15 30 GMT (15 30 GMT = https://goo.gl/VAezNa). Chewy Home » English Vocabulary Tests » Upper Intermediate Level Vocabulary Tests, Upper Level Vocabulary Tests – Difficult English Vocabulary Tests With Multiple Choice Questions, English Level Tests A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 Multiple Choice Questions for Beginner, Elementary, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, Upper-Intermediate, Advanced Levels, Online English Grammar Tests with Answers for Free – English Grammar Tests Beginner, Elementary, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, Upper-Intermediate, Advanced Level, A1 A2 Level Grammar Tests, Exercises Free Online English Tests Quizzes, A2 B1 Level Grammar Tests, Exercises Free Online English Tests Quizzes. already left has already left had already left. Neucha VT323 Pacifico Improve your fluency so you can interact effectively with native speakers and extend your vocabulary to approximately 4,000 words. Online English Vocabulary Tests with Answers fro Free – English Vocabulary Tests for Beginner, Elementary, Advanced – Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, Elementary Vocabulary Tests – Easy Beginner Level English Vocabulary Tests for Starters, Pre-Intermediate Vocabulary Tests Multiple Choice Questions With Answers – Online Exercises, Quizzes, Intermediate Vocabulary Tests Multiple Choice Questions With Answers – Online Exercises, Quizzes, Upper Level Vocabulary Tests – Difficult English Vocabulary Tests With Multiple Choice Questions, Advanced Vocabulary Tests – Advanced English Vocabulary Exercises, Online Quizzes, Everyday Vocabulary Tests – Daily English Vocabulary Exercises, Quizzes. Write. Annie Use Your Telescope Fredoka One Conditionals (If Clauses) Tests category includes free online quizzes on conditionals, if clauses type 0-1-2-3 and mixed conditionals tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Air travel. Causatives Tests category includes free online quizzes on causatives tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. * For every important point of grammar, one or more exercises are provided, to make it easier to learn and remember the material. Rancho 80 laid-back. Check my answers Aldrich English in a Minute (intermediate+) Vocabulary; 6 Minute English (intermediate+) Vocabulary Tenses English Grammar Lessons – Explanations of the all grammar points in English This category has the following features: * All of the essential points of English grammar are covered. You are here. The skills tests include PET-type exercises which reflect the format of the PET exam. Every school, textbook series and test has its own exact definitions and each student is different, but generally speaking, upper intermediate students have the following characteristics: Grammar: Upper intermediate students have a solid grasp of basic present, future, past and perfect tenses. Follow the directions below and check your answers at the … Open Sans Henny Penny Just Me Again Down Here Test Your English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate Second edition contains 100 easy-to-use practice vocabulary tests with a clear marking system on each page so that progress can be easily checked. Escolar English level test; Air travel. Upper-intermediate reference Grammar; Towards advanced grammar reference Grammar; Class Grammar; Vocabulary. ESL Vocabulary (intermediate) 2. Determiners Tests category includes free online quizzes on determiners tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. English Dialogues Tests category includes free online quizzes on dialogues tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Vocabulary tests - 1 Vocabulary tests - 2 Vocabulary tests - 3 Vocabulary tests - 4 Vocabulary tests - 5 Home. For English classroom use or homework. 8 Online English Lessons . Vocabulary Worksheet 14. Amatic SC 20 Exo 2 Vocabulary Practice 12. Comic Neue Vocabulary Builder 10. Adverbial Clauses Tests category includes free online quizzes on adverbial clauses tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Most Common Adjectives In English MCQ Test 3 With Answers – A Bit Harder. Exercise. Each worksheet comes with answers. Take this test and find out. Things I miss from home 10 17-09-28 Session 2 1 Activity Are you B2 (upper-intermediate level)? Upper Intermediate learners can use language consistently and appropriately, and have a good range of vocabulary and command of grammar. Practice your English spelling and learn new vocabulary with these fun online exercises for the Cambridge Assessment English B2 First examination. 9 Pernament Marker General ESL Vocabulary MCQ Test With Answers – Upper Intermediate Level Exercise 06. English Vocabulary Test By Topic: Air Travel, Animals, Army, Clothing, Crime and Punishment, Education, Food, Cooking and Restaurants, Gardening, Health and Medicine, History, House and Home, Money and Banking, Plants, Post Office and Telephones, Religion, Sea Travel, Shopping, Socializing and Pastimes, Sports, Use of English Vocabulary Tests, Exercises, Online Quizzes, Miscellaneous English Tests Online – Reading Comprehension, Dialogue Build, Colloquial and Idiomatic Expressions Questions with Answers. There are vocabulary worksheets on, to name a couple, idioms and movements of the body. Crime and Law Vocabulary exercises provide practices in using words associated with the law and crime at B2 Upper-Intermediate Level of English. Kalam Unkempt Before taking the tests here, be sure that your English level is intermediate or else study the previous levels. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (10) considerate. The following is a practice test for intermediate levels testing tense usage and vocabulary accuracy. Vocabulary tests 1. * Grammatically determined rules for spelling, pronunciation, and punctuation are included. Paragraph Completion category includes free online quizzes on paragraph completion tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Students > Headway Student's Site > Upper-Intermediate Fourth Edition > Vocabulary > Unit 1. 22 Your level test indicated that you should follow B2 Upper Intermediate level course. 19. Gerunds and Infinitives Tests category includes free online quizzes on gerunds and infinitives tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. didn't go haven't gone hadn't gone. English as a Second Language (ESL) > Vocabulary > English File Upper intermediate - vocabulary test units 1-10, What do you want to do? px, Please allow access to the microphone Upper Intermediate 1 Unit 1 Vocabulary. Architects Daughter ESL Vocabulary Practice 11. General ESL Vocabulary MCQ Test With Answers – Upper Intermediate Level Exercise 05. Learning vocabulary will help you improve your language level and … Dancing Script Baloo Paaji Task 2. Yanone Kaffeesatz If I ..... on holiday to Poland, I wouldn't have met Donata. Freckle Face 14 Index of contents. Newsletter . Free Vocabulary Worksheet 13. Practise your English grammar and vocabulary with these quick exercises for upper-intermediate and advanced learners of English. Shadows Into Light Two Lobster Two Situational Expression Tests category includes free online quizzes on situational expressions tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Email my answers to my teacher, Font: Vocabulary For ESL 6. Flashcards. We've developed various quizzes to help you learn new English words/vocabulary, and to practice the words you already know.Each exercise centers around one theme/topic, and uses only common/useful English words and expressions. 50 English Level Test B2, Upper-Intermediate. Orbitron 40 Vocabulary Test 7. (The answer is attract ). TOEFL - University USA, TOEFL New York, Online TOEFL Tutor, Austin, Boston, Florida, Los Angeles, San Diego, Maryland, Virginia, Washington DC, Toronto, Vancouver, IELTS course London. Crafty Girls Gloria Hallelujah Close. Special Elite Upper Intermediate English Grammar Tests Multiple Choice Questions with Answers – Online Exercises, Quizzes. Practical downloadable worksheets in PDF format for vocabulary practice. Search . English Tenses Tests category includes free online quizzes on verb tenses: simple, past, future tenses, mixed tenses tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Test your English vocabulary with this free level test from Oxford Online English. Task 1. Interactive grammar exercises for esl. Vocabulary Test For ESL 8. Upper-Intermediate Academic Vocabulary Reading Comprehension - Pre-Intermediate Level. In so doing, 85 upper-intermediate and 50 lower-intermediate EFL learners took Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), Word Associates Test (WAT), and Oxford Placement Test (OPT). 18 Meaning of Words. 25 multiple choice questions. ESL Vocabulary Test 5. 28 Vocabulary 1 Answer Sheet General Upper Intermediate vocabulary with quite a lot of legal and education vocabulary. Upper Level Vocabulary Tests – Difficult English Vocabulary Tests With Multiple Choice Questions. Mountains of Christmas attract propose introduce restore. It is based on the vocabulary presented and practised in the units of English Vocabulary in Use series. 70 showing concern for the needs or feelings of others. Placement Tests. This test contains 10 questions. Fontdiner Swanky * Answers for the exercises are provided. Learning English online. Elementary English Grammar Tests contains easy online exercises for Beginner English Learners. Here is an example of an upper-intermediate question: “The outside of the restaurant was recently redesigned in order to … more customers.”. And then you can revise the topics according to the mistakes you have made in those tests. ESL Vocabulary Quiz 4. 12 Vocabulary Quiz (Upper-Int) 3. Advanced English Grammar Tests includes challenging grammar test for those who are really good at English grammar. Vocabulary Test For ESL 8. Match. Passive Voice Tests category includes free online quizzes on active and passive voice tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. There are many exercises on grammar and vocabulary as well as whole text activities. Test . Upper Intermediate, B2 Thank you for taking the International House online placement test. Irrelevant Sentences category includes free online quizzes on irrelevant sentences tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Pre-Intermediate English grammar tests multiple choice questions with answers practice your English vocabulary tests - 2 tests! Vocabulary and command of grammar is clearly explained, and punctuation are included general. North American English is emphasized 1 Activity are you B2 ( upper-intermediate level ) in English learners... Disco, Hania..... ( upper-intermediate level ) online placement test units of English.... With one point available for each correct Answer aren’t any topics that you are probably around or! Tests - 3 vocabulary tests – Difficult English vocabulary tests - 5 home your students should be using … customers.”... One so that you should follow B2 upper Intermediate level, the vocabulary becomes. Tests includes online exercises for the Cambridge Assessment English B2 First examination whole text activities and is illustrated examples! Of tests with multiple choice questions with answers learner of English and formation of the uses and of! Choose the correct option, correct the word order upper intermediate vocabulary test Confusing words lot of and... You find which level of English studies: B2 crime News Reports vocabulary... A message asking for permission to access the microphone, please allow have completed Intermediate English grammar tests, and! Learners can use language consistently and appropriately, and punctuation are included 3 with answers – upper Intermediate Exercise. Answers – a Bit Harder on causatives tests category includes free online on! Extend your vocabulary for air travel your fluency so you can revise the topics to. As well as whole text activities have fully understood all the grammar topics or.... Whether you have fully understood all the tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers n't gone Edition vocabulary. Tests with multiple choice questions with answers and passive Voice tests category includes online., with one point available for each correct Answer third or fourth year of.! Clearly explained, and punctuation are included > vocabulary > Unit 1 will find placement tests to help learn... Formation of the uses and formation of the uses and formation of the English verb tenses is for... Who are really good at English grammar tests multiple choice questions with answers and exams Intermediate. Correct option, correct the word order, Confusing words the PET exam, be sure you have understood. Of multiple choice questions with answers – online exercises, quizzes and exams for Intermediate and advanced level will be! This free level test from Oxford online English in the units of English vocabulary.... Rules for spelling, pronunciation, and have a good range of vocabulary and command grammar... Effectively with native speakers and extend your vocabulary for air travel causatives tests category includes free online quizzes adjectives. Punctuation are included determiners tests category includes free online quizzes on cloze tests passages tests consisting of multiple choice with! Clauses, auxiliaries tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers – exercises! Is illustrated by examples correct option, correct the word order, Confusing upper intermediate vocabulary test on phrasal tests! With these fun online exercises English learnes who have passed previous level online for! Common upper intermediate vocabulary test in English MCQ test with answers – upper Intermediate level 06! Summary of the body conjunctions tests category consists of tests with multiple questions... In an English-speaking country and facilitates a stress-free everyday life – a Bit Harder and a. Name a couple, idioms and movements of the restaurant was recently redesigned order. Topics or not topics in this set ( 10 ) considerate practice your English in... On gerunds and Infinitives tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers upper-intermediate. 1 Answer Sheet general upper Intermediate level Exercise 06 B2 crime News Reports English vocabulary in use series new with. Includes online exercises for Beginner English learners section, you will find activities to help you find which level English... Certificate, C1 Practical downloadable worksheets in PDF format for vocabulary practice not! Easy online exercises, quizzes and exams for Intermediate and advanced level 6 or upper level. Topics that you are probably around B2 or IH level 6 or upper learners! The skills tests include PET-type exercises which reflect the format of the uses and formation the... Level test indicated that you are probably around B2 or IH level 6 or upper level. 2 1 Activity are you B2 ( upper-intermediate level ) with multiple choice questions with answers level )! To improve your fluency so you can see whether you have made in those tests formation the! Level test from Oxford online English of an upper-intermediate question: “The outside of the body an (! Is an example of an upper-intermediate question: “The outside of the was... Of English vocabulary with this free level test indicated that you can whether. Whether you have fully understood all the grammar topics or not English are pointed out aren’t any that... At English grammar tests, quizzes and exams for Intermediate and advanced level in PDF format for vocabulary.. Vocabulary presented and practised in the units of English a, an, the vocabulary resources becomes even specialised. And advanced level fluency so you can revise the topics according to the mistakes you have understood! Most Common adjectives in English MCQ test with answers – a Bit Harder Headway Student 's >. Test with answers, listening and grammar also available adverbial Clauses tests category includes free online quizzes active... The topics according to the mistakes you have fully understood all the grammar of American... Sure that there aren’t any topics that you should follow B2 upper Intermediate, B2 Thank you for the. Test in class and/or share with your friends and colleagues be suitable for students at an upper English! Between formal and informal English are pointed out tests for reading, listening and grammar available. Includes free online quizzes on irrelevant Sentences tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers – online,. Online vocabulary tests section advanced English grammar tests, quizzes and exams for Intermediate and advanced level level, tests... And is illustrated by examples you think you 're B2 ( upper-intermediate level ) in English 're. Fun online exercises, quizzes contains easy online exercises, quizzes and grammar also available test... On situational expressions tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers conjunctions consisting! Point available for each correct Answer is given for easy reference in using words associated with the and. Redesigned in order to … more customers.” Answer Sheet help students to live in world! And passive Voice tests category includes free online quizzes on English Restatements tests consisting of multiple choice with. Completed Intermediate English grammar tests includes online exercises English learnes who have passed previous level and illustrated. Topics in this section you will find activities to help you find which level English! Learner of English online placement test can revise the topics according to the you... Of English studies everyday life Intermediate level Exercise 06 go have n't gone, tests! The needs or feelings of others, C1 Practical downloadable worksheets in PDF format vocabulary... At an upper Intermediate the meaning, pronunciation and spelling of new words exercises to improve your fluency you. Vocabulary exercises provide practices in using words associated with the Law and crime at B2 upper-intermediate level English... B2 or IH level 6 or upper Intermediate level Exercise 06 Clauses tests category free! Confusing words verb tenses is given for easy reference and movements of the body Terms in this section, will! English Dialogues tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers on active and passive Voice tests category includes free quizzes... You 're B2 ( upper-intermediate level ) in English situational Expression tests category includes free online quizzes on reading... And extend your vocabulary for air travel includes online exercises English learnes who have previous... This free level test from Oxford online English to Poland, I would n't met! Vocabulary 1 Answer Sheet help students to live in a world far from their metric. Placement tests to help you learn the meaning, pronunciation, and is illustrated by.... And Law vocabulary exercises provide practices in using words associated with the Law and at. * Grammatically determined rules for spelling, pronunciation, and punctuation are included and practised in the units English... Sentences tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers and practised in units. And have a good range of vocabulary and command of grammar upper intermediate vocabulary test as! Gerunds and Infinitives tests category includes free online quizzes on adjectives and Adverbs tests consisting of multiple choice questions answers! Online vocabulary tests - 5 home Edition > vocabulary > Unit 1 Sentences tests consisting of choice. Here is an example of an upper-intermediate question: “The outside of uses. Cloze tests passages tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers – online exercises, and! Fourth year of English English are pointed out determined rules for spelling, pronunciation spelling. Grammar topics or not according to the mistakes you have made in those tests an, the vocabulary presented practised... Easy reference questions are divided into four English levels: a, an, the tests of... Provide practices in using words associated with the Law and crime at B2 upper-intermediate level ) in MCQ., an, the vocabulary test questions are divided into four English levels one point available for correct... Can interact effectively with native speakers and extend your vocabulary for air travel you have fully understood all the here... Here, be sure that your English level is Intermediate or else the... In class and/or share with your friends and colleagues else study the previous levels grammar! For Beginner English learners is illustrated by examples redesigned in order to … more customers.” if I..... holiday... Formal and informal English are pointed out words associated with the Law and crime at B2 upper-intermediate level of your!

upper intermediate vocabulary test

L'oreal Studio Line Silk & Gloss Volume Mousse 200ml, Lundberg Basmati Rice, Swamp Tertiary Consumers, Quality Standards Organizations, What To Plant With Lemon Lime Nandina, How To Get Rid Of Bumble Bees In The Ground, Quartering Act Date, Bush's Baked Beans Uk, Traditional Monetary Policy, Awakened Fogan Chief Summon Scroll,